World Metrology Day 2020

The 20 May 2020 constitutes the 145th anniversary of the Meter Convention (French: Convention du Mètre). In 1875, metrologists celebrated this day when seventeen States signed an agreement on the world-wide uniformity of measurement. With this agreement, the States created the first international, intergovernmental scientific organisations: The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) and the International Committee on Weights and Measures (CIPM), which jointly coordinate metrology and the development of the metric system at an international level. The signing countries decided to produce measurement standards (“the original meter” and “the original kilogram”) for the units of measurement “meter” and “kilogram”.

The Meter Convention was initially drafted to provide standards of length and mass only. In the 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvin suggested a system with three base units – length, mass, and time. At the end of the 19th century, it became clear that the three fundamental units of length, weight and time could not explain electrical measurements. The Italian physicist Giovanni Giorgi, therefore, proposed to extend that the measurands meter, kilo and second by including ampere. The Giorgi System was the precursor of today’s International System of Units (SI) with seven basic units: meter (length), kilogram (mass), second (time), ampere (electric current), kelvin (temperature), mole (amount in chemistry), and candela (brightness). These base units can partially be combined to describe different quantities, such as volume, energy, pressure, and speed, which are composed of more than one unit. 

Diagram of the basic units of the International System (SI)

Source: BIPM

The World Metrology Day 2019 achieved a further milestone in the development of the metric system. On 20 May 2019, the redefinition of the International System of Units (SI) came into force. From that date onwards, all the units depend on the laws of nature, instead of depending on physical artefacts. The “Big Kilo” hosted at the BIPM in Paris, is no longer the reference for the “kilogram”. Today, the “mass” unit is based on the Planck constant; the “meter” is based on the speed of light. In the redefinition, four of the seven SI base units – the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin, and the mole – were redefined by setting exact numerical values for the Planck constant (h), the elementary electric charge (e), the Boltzmann constant (k), and the Avogadro constant (NA), respectively.

Photo by Mesopartner of visit at NMISA

Two months ago, I had the opportunity to visit the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA). For the first time, I could see a Kibble-Watt balance there, one of the instruments that can measure the kilogram with ultra-precision. Similar to a mechanical scale, the device indirectly compares mechanical power with an equivalent amount of electrical power. More precisely, it measures the downward attraction of a mass due to a gravitational force by opposing it with an upward electromagnetic force. This design of the Kibble Balance provides the most accurate mass measurement possible.

2020 World Metrology Day CIPM President’s Message by Dr Wynand Louw

In his message, the CIPM President, Dr Wynand Louw, emphasises the unexpected benefits of the 2019 revision of the System of Units. Today, National Metrology Institutes around the world can implement the basic units of measurement without the involvement of physical artefacts. In times of the Corona pandemic, it proves to be a particular advantage that the National Metrology Institutes no longer have to travel to the BIPM in France to recalibrate their national standards. It is impressive to see that an emerging economy like South Africa is technologically capable of measuring at the same level of precision as the world’s leading NMIs.

Reference
De Courtenay, N., et al. (2019). The Reform of the International System of Units (SI): Philosophical, Historical and Sociological Issues, Routledge.

Quinn, T. (2018). The Metre Convention and the creation of the BIPM. In: P. Tavella, M. J. T. Milton and M. Inguscio, Metrology: from Physics Fundamentals to Quality of Life. Amsterdam. 196: 203.

http://www.worldmetrologyday.org

Feature image with permission and copyright of BIMP/ OIML.

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About Dr. Ulrich Harmes-Liedtke

Dr Ulrich Harmes-Liedtke is a global expert in the field of international economic development cooperation. With more than 25 years of consulting experience, he is active in all phases of a project and program development (preparation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation) and collaborates with various implementing organizations and development banks (German Development Cooperation - GIZ and PTB -, Inter-American Development Bank, European Union and United Nations). He has consulting experience in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. Dr.Harmes-Liedtke is an experienced trainer and process consultant. He works with groups and teams to reflect on their situation and to then formulate change projects to improve their reality. He enables dialogue, facilitates and designs workshops, processes, and sense-making processes. He is certified in facilitation, mediation, and communication techniques which allow him to deal with sensitive, diverse, and even conflict situations. He supports systemic economic development in various roles: • As an expert and trainer in international trade, national quality policies, industrial policy, clusters, and global value chains • As a process consultant in designing and leading diagnostic processes that result in change, adaptation, and improvement • As a facilitator of dialogue, workshops, training, and sense-making processes • As a transdisciplinary researcher in the field of systemic economic development Born 1965, Ph.D. in political science and economics (Bremen 1999), MA in economics (Diplom-Volkswirt) (Hamburg 1991). German nationality.

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